Oils, Fuelling and Electrical system

Basic information and guides on your TM Racing machines engine oils, quantities and oil change routines, fuel and fueling systems, electrical components and devices and some ‘need-to-know’ maintenance for 4-stroke engines.2-STROKE ENGINE MACHINES.FUEL REQUIREMENTS :-   Super Unleaded – minimum 97 octane.PREMIX OIL & RATIOS :-  Sythetic Racing Premix Oil(NOTE: Do not use ‘Scooter’ type premix oils or oils designed for both ‘premix’ and ‘pump / drip feed’ oil systems. Use a specific ‘Racing’ only premix oil)RATIOS :-          80cc / 85cc / 100cc / 125cc / 144cc = 40:1         (This equates to 500ml per 20 litres of fuel)          250cc / 300cc = 33:1         (This equates to 600ml per 20 litres of fuel)SPARK PLUG DESIGNATIONS:-          NGK BR9 EG – Electrode gap: 0.7mm         85cc / 100cc /  125cc / 144cc engines.                  NGK BR9 ECMIX         85cc / 100cc engines         NGK BR8 EG – Electrode Gap: 0.7mm         250cc / 300cc engines NOTE: it is advised, in light of some issues over the past few years with numerous motorcycle manufacturers and variants of their machines, that some spark plug designations have suffered accounts of ‘tip / electrode’ failure, thus leading to engine damage. This has been noted by many motorcycle manufacturers through no fault of their own and we therefore advise that 125cc and 144cc machines can have their spark plug desinations updated to an NGK R7376-9 plug (NGK stock code 7763) that feature a differing grounding. It is advised to fit this plug after the running in process has been completed.GEARBOX OIL 2-STROKE :-Gearbox oil designed specifically for 2-Stroke engines with a ‘wet clutch’, or a quality branded Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF).GEARBOX OIL QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS :-                  80cc / 85cc / 100cc /  125cc / 144cc :-            – 500ml in all engines up to model year 2006           – 600ml in all engines 2007 >            250cc / 300cc :-            – 700 ml.CARBURETION :-Keihin PWK / PWM carburetors.In normal operating circumstances the only changes needed to be made to your TM Racing 2-Stroke powered machines caburetion will be alterations to your main jet and your needle clip position, rarely your fuel/air mixture once set correctly, dependent on track conditions and operating temperature, please refer to your TM Racing dealer for more information regarding ‘jetting’ your TM Racing machine before proceeding with altering any of these settings, your TM dealer can explain to you the benefits of correct jetting and how to ‘read’ what your engine and spark plug colour is telling you to do.WARNING: correct jetting will allow your TM Racing engine to perform at its best in the conditions required, however, do not attempt to alter these settings with little knowledge or understanding of how these changes affect the behaviour of your engine and the consequences that these changes can lead to. Making an error in carburetion settings will cause severe damage to your engine, If unsure contact your TM Racing dealer or TM UK.NOTE: on 2-Stroke Enduro machines which normally operate with a ‘tick-over’ it may ensure cleaner running of you TM Racing machine if you decrease the pilot jet size to compensate for the increase in fuel/air at low rpm’s. The ‘tick-over’ screw on the Keihin PWK/PWM carburetors is effectively just a device to lift the ‘slide’, therefore the ‘throttle’ is being held open by the tick-over adjuster screw, essentially you are running on part throttle even when you have the throttle closed, this can lead to the symptoms of ‘rich’ running at low rpm’s and can cause hesitancy (bog) from the engine, decreasing the pilot jet size from 42 down to 40 or 38 will counteract this effect and the bike will run correctly. Remember always keep the the carburetor clean and drain after washing to ensure no moisture is trapped inside, moisture can lead to bad running and corrosion of the internal components.4-STROKE ENGINE MACHINES :- FUEL REQUIREMENTS :-   Super Unleaded – minimum 97 octane.SPARK PLUG DESIGNATIONS USED :-NOTE: Because of electrical system changes over various model and model years please ensure you note your machines spark plug type and replace with a new, identical one.         NGK CR8E – Electrode gap: 0.7mm        (250cc / 400cc / 450cc / 530cc / 660cc – Carburated Machines)         NGK R0045J-10         (250Fi / 300Fi – Fuel Injected 4-Stroke Machines – Single Pipe)         NGK R0451B-8         (250Fi – Fuel Injected 4-Stroke Machines – Twin Pipe)         NGK CR9 EIX – Electrode Gap: 0.7mm         (250Fi / 300Fi /450Fi / 530Fi –  Fuel Injected 4-Stroke Machines)         BATTERY REQUIREMENTS :-  For ‘Electric Start’ machines        – Yuasa YTX7L-BS  – >2014          – Lithium Ion HJTZ5S-FP-SWI  – 2015>ENGINE OIL REQUIREMENTS :-Running-in period = Original fill oil.Post running-in period = High quality semi/fully synthetic 15w/50 racing motorcycle oil for use with ‘wet clutches’. We recommend Bel-Ray ‘Thumper’ / Motul 300v.ENGINE OIL QUANTITIES :-        250cc / 400cc / 450cc / 450Fi / 530cc / 530Fi / 660cc :-        – Oil change = 1.300 litres.        – Oil and oil filter change = 1.350 litres.        – Complete rebuild = 1.400 litres.         250cc / 300cc Fi models:-        – Oil change = 1.200 litres.        – Oil and oil filter change = 1.250 litres.        – Complete rebuild = 1.300 litres.NOTE: For 660cc SMX Supermotard Competition machines please refer to your user manual as different crankcase options will alter the oil capacity levels.IMPORTANT NOTES: Whilst completing oil changes on your TM Racing 4-Stroke machine you must ensure that the oil level in the inspection window is visible before and during engine running. Ideally the oil level should be showing as 3/4’s full in the inspection window at idle, upon increasing the engine rpm’s the oil level should lower slightly as the oil pump increases its flow rate around the engine, once the engine has settled back to idle the oil level should return back to 3/4’s full in the window, If not please add more oil until the desired measurement is achieved or slightly exceeded. On 250Fi / 300Fi models, after long periods of rest, the majority of oil in the engine will eventually drain into the sump area and may give the impression of very low oil in the engine. Leaning the bike to the right for 10 seconds should then allow you to see oil appear in the sight glass window. If you are certain there is oil in the engine proceed to start the engine, the oil level should then stabilise once again in the sight glass window and give you an accurate oil level reading. Do not be tempted to add more oil to the engine prior to running and chcking the level, too much oil in the engine will lead to bad performance and running issues.  Please ensure that the engine is not under or over-filled. VALVE CLEARANCES :-        250cc / 400cc / 450cc / 450Fi / 530cc / 530Fi / 660cc :-        – Inlet 0.10mm > 0.15mm -/- Exhaust 0.15mm > 0.20mm        250 Fi / 300Fi :-        – Inlet 0.10mm > 0.15mm mm -/- Exhaust 0.15mm > 0.20mmCARBURETION :-Mikuni TDMR 36/39//41 – Keihin FCRD 39/41As with the two stroke machines the carburetor settings should need little adjustment, the carburetors used on TM Racing 4-Stroke machines are very complex and should not be tampered with by inexperienced users, please refer to your TM Racing dealer for more information on these carburetors and for any technical help you may require with any running errors of the fueling system. Remember always keep your carburetor clean and drain it after washing to ensure no moisture is trapped inside, this can lead to bad running and corrosion of the internal components.ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS :-Electronically Fuel injected machines require little in the way of maintenance and set-up, on TM Racing Efi equipped machines the fuel is filtered upon entering the fuel pump, to remove any impurities or particles in the fuel, the fuel is then pumped under high pressure through yet another finer filtration system to the main fuel line into the throttle body and then into the injector, the injector then atomizes the fuel into the oncoming air stream and enters the combustion chamber. The metering and volume of fuel injected into the engine is controlled by the ECU which ‘pulses’ and times the delivery of the fuel supply, the ECU monitors throttle position, engine speed, cooling system temperature, air pressure, air speed and a number of other factors to calculate how much fuel is required at any given time, this metering system can adjust itself to one of its set parameters in milliseconds and is a far more economical approach to engine fueling, whilst not only regulating the fuel supply more economically further reductions in fuel usage are also gained from not having a ‘float chamber’ like a carburetor from which fuel can escape through the venting system.The main advantage of Electronic Fuel Injection system, from a riders perspective, is that the electronic control of the fuel supply virtually eliminates hesitation (bogging) that is commonly found in carbureted 4-Stroke machines and also the risk of engine stalling is lessened (although this is electronically monitored for safety) due to the electronics ability to alter the fueling characteristics of the engine and keep it running. A conventional ‘mechanical’ carburetor with a ‘float bowl’ will lose its fuel from its vent pipes and its fueling characteristics will change as it cannot utilise its carburetion jets unless they are bathed in fuel, this then leads to engine stall and increases the difficulty of re-starting the machine under high temperatures.TM Racing’s policy of ensuring only the best components are used on their machines limits the use for changes to the Electronic Fuel Injection system, with components of exceptional quality, HGS exhaust systems for example, being fitted to the machine as a ‘standard’ part there is no need to ‘upgrade’ components like many other manufacturers machines and alter the working components of the engine, therefore altering the components that are factored in the metering devices of the ECU. The ECU fitted to TM Racing machines is adaptable to a very small degree and will compensate for minuscule changes to the machines working characteristics without the need for program interfacing (re-mapping), this occurs by the ECU using the readings from the on-board sensors and correcting the fuel supply to a level which it calculates to be closer to the optimum setting. Whilst this type of system can overcome very small changes from the stock parameters it is not infinitely calculating or self intelligent, the parameters it can change to are determined by the TM Racing programming and the ECU is limited to those tiny adjustments only, huge changes in elevation and oxygen reduction for example will be too great for the system to overcome with the pre-installed parameters and re-mapping of the ECU will need to take place, however, in the real world these extreme examples are not likely to occur and the need to interface with the ECU is not necessary or recommended.If any problems occur with your TM Racing Efi equipped machine it should be taken to your TM Racing dealer for inspection and diagnostic test immediately.WARNING: TM Racing and TM UK do not advise alterations to the Electronic Fuel Injection system, its components or the pre-installed ECU parameters. This electronic device has been pre-programmed by TM Racing to give your TM Racing machine the maximum performance, reliability and safety. Failure to adhere to this warning could lead to engine component failure and/or injury.